This section provides an introduction to microchains, the main building block of the Linera Protocol. For a more formal treatment refer to the whitepaper.


A microchain is a chain of blocks describing successive changes to a shared state. We will use the terms chain and microchain interchangeably. Linera microchains are similar to the familiar notion of blockchain, with the following important specificities:

  • An arbitrary number of microchains can coexist in a Linera network, all sharing the same set of validators and the same level of security. Creating a new microchain only takes one transaction on an existing chain.

  • The task of proposing new blocks in a microchain can be assumed either by validators or by end users (or rather their wallets) depending on the configuration of a chain. Specifically, microchains can be single-owner, permissioned, or public, depending on who is authorized to propose blocks.

Cross-Chain Messaging

In traditional networks with a single blockchain, every transaction can access the application's entire execution state. This is not the case in Linera where the state of an application is spread across multiple microchains, and the state on any individual microchain is only affected by the blocks of that microchain.

Cross-chain messaging is a way for different microchains to communicate with each other asynchronously. This method allows applications and data to be distributed across multiple chains for better scalability. When an application on one chain sends a message to itself on another chain, a cross-chain request is created. These requests are implemented using remote procedure calls (RPCs) within the validators' internal network, ensuring that each request is executed only once.

Instead of immediately modifying the target chain, messages are placed first in the target chain's inbox. When an owner of the target chain creates its next block in the future, they may reference a selection of messages taken from the current inbox in the new block. This executes the selected messages and applies their messages to the chain state.

Below is an example set of chains sending asynchronous messages to each other over consecutive blocks.

                               ┌───┐     ┌───┐     ┌───┐
                       Chain A │   ├────►│   ├────►│   │
                               └───┘     └───┘     └───┘
                               ┌───┐     ┌─┴─┐     ┌───┐
                       Chain B │   ├────►│   ├────►│   │
                               └───┘     └─┬─┘     └───┘
                                           │         ▲
                                           │         │
                                           ▼         │
                               ┌───┐     ┌───┐     ┌─┴─┐
                       Chain C │   ├────►│   ├────►│   │
                               └───┘     └───┘     └───┘

The Linera protocol allows receivers to discard messages but not to change the ordering of selected messages inside the communication queue between two chains. If a selected message fails to execute, the wallet will automatically reject it when proposing the receiver's block. The current implementation of the Linera client always selects as many messages as possible from inboxes, and never discards messages unless they fail to execute.

Chain Ownership Semantics

Active chains can have one or multiple owners. Chains with zero owners are permanently deactivated.

In Linera, the validators guarantee safety: On each chain, at each height, there is at most one unique block.

But liveness—actually adding blocks to a chain at all—relies on the owners. There are different types of rounds and owners, optimized for different use cases:

  • First an optional fast round, where a super owner can propose blocks that get confirmed with very particularly low latency, optimal for single-owner chains with no contention.
  • Then a number of multi-leader rounds, where all regular owners can propose blocks. This works well even if there is occasional, temporary contention: an owner using multiple devices, or multiple people using the same chain infrequently.
  • And finally single-leader rounds: These give each regular chain owner a time slot in which only they can propose a new block, without being hindered by any other owners' proposals. This is ideal for chains with many users that are trying to commit blocks at the same time.

The number of multi-leader rounds is configurable: On chains with fluctuating levels of activity, this allows the system to dynamically switch to single-leader mode whenever all multi-leader rounds fail during periods of high contention. Chains that very often have high activity from multiple owners can set the number of multi-leader rounds to 0.

For more detail and examples on how to open and close chains, see the wallet section on chain management.